Read More of the Research

We’ve referred to a lot of research studies in the pages of this website – 18 in fact! And you can find them all here for more in-depth reading. You can also download the KENS Math Research & Rationale for a quick overview of the supporting research.

Early Math Education Relates to Later Math Achievement

“School Readiness and Later Achievement” By Greg J. Duncan et al

In his review of multiple math research studies, Greg Duncan suggests that the math ability of a student entering kindergarten is a good predictor of later math and reading achievement.


“Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade” By Maria N. Locuniak and Nancy C. Jordan

“Number Sense Growth in Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Investigation of Children at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties” By Nancy C. Jordan, David Kaplan, Leslie Nabors Ola´h, and Maria N. Locuniak, University of Delaware

“Kindergarten Predictors of Math Learning Disability” By Michèle M. M. Mazzocco and Richard E. Thompson


Research about Board Games

“Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in Low-Income Children’s Numerical Knowledge Through Playing Number Board Games” By Geetha B. Ramani, University of Maryland and Robert S. Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University.

This study highlights the role of basic board games as a tool to promote development of number sense.


“Playing Linear Number Board Games—But Not Circular Ones—Improves Low-Income Preschoolers’ Numerical Understanding” By Robert S. Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University and Geetha B. Ramani, University of Maryland.

In this important study it was shown that math achievement was correlated with the number of board games a child played.


“Reducing the Gap in Numerical Knowledge Between Low- and Middle-income Preschoolers”, Geetha B. Ramani and Robert S. Siedler

“Number Games, Magnitude Representation and Basic Number Skills inPreschoolers”, J.C. Whyte and R. Bull


“Subitizing: What is it? Why Teach it?” By Douglas Clement

In this piece Clement provides an informative overview of subitizing and the development of perceptual and conceptual subitizing. He concludes that subitizing can play an important role in the development of basic math skills including addition and subtraction skills.


“Subitizing and Mathematics Performance in Early Childhood” By Cathy Yun, et al, Peabody Research Institute.

More than 500 kindergarten students were assessed for this study that demonstrates a strong relationship between subitizing skill and math achievement.


“Numerical Competence in Young Children and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities” By Annemie Desoete and Jacques Grégoire

Subitizing has been shown to be a reliable predictor of later math achievement as supported by this study.


“Effects of Daily Practice on Subitizing, Visual Counting, and Basic Arithmetic Skills” By Burkhart Fischer, Andrea Köngeter, and Klaus Hartnegg, Center of Neuroscience, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

With practice, older students can develop the ability to subitize and increase arithmetic skills.

Number Lines

“Three Parietal Circuits for Number Processing”, Stanislas Dehaene, Manuela Piazza, Philippe Pinel & Laurent Cohen. Researchers have found that one way a number is represented in the brain is through a type of internal number line.

“Developmental and Individual Differences in Pure Numerical Estimation”, Julie L. Booth and Robert S. Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University

Children with mathematical learning difficulties had greater difficulties accurately placing a number on a number line when compared with typically achieving students.


“Mental Number Line, Number Line Estimation, and Mathematical Achievement: Their Interrelations in Grades 5 and 6” By Michael Schneider, Roland H. Grabner, Jennifer Paetsch.

Multiple research studies show that kindergartners who do not develop number sense while in kindergarten are highly likely to develop math difficulties in later grades.


“Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children’s Memory for Numbers” By Clarissa Thompson & Robert S. Siegler

Children from preschool through

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second grade with strong number line skills also had a better number recall from word problems.


“Development of Number Line Representations in Children with Mathematical Learning Disability” By David C. Geary, Mary K. Hoard, Lara Nugent, and Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Department of Psychological Science, University of Missouri

Children with mathematical learning difficulties had greater difficulties accurately placing a number on a number line when compared with typically achieving students.


Other supporting studies:

“Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children’s Memory for Numbers”